A domain name is a label that identifies a network domain: a distinct group of computers under a central administration or authority.
Within the Internet, domain names are formed by the rules and procedures of the Domain Name System (DNS). Any name registered in the DNS is a domain name. Domain names are used in various networking contexts and for application-specific naming and addressing purposes. In general, a domain name represents an Internet Protocol (IP) resource, such as a personal computer used to access the Internet, a server computer hosting a web site, or the web site itself or any other service communicated via the Internet. In 2017, 330.6 million domain names had been registered.Domain names are organized in subordinate levels (subdomains) of the DNS root domain, which is nameless. The first-level set of domain names are the top-level domains (TLDs), including the generic top-level domains (gTLDs), such as the prominent domains com, info, net, edu, and org, and the country code top-level domains (ccTLDs). Below these top-level domains in the DNS hierarchy are the second-level and third-level domain names that are typically open for reservation by end-users who wish to connect local area networks to the Internet, create other publicly accessible Internet resources or run web sites.
The registration of these domain names is usually administered by domain name registrars who sell their services to the public.
A fully qualified domain name (FQDN) is a domain name that is completely specified with all labels in the hierarchy of the DNS, having no parts omitted. Labels in the Domain Name System are case-insensitive, and may therefore be written in any desired capitalization method, but most commonly domain names are written in lowercase in technical contexts.

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PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor (or simply PHP) is a general-purpose programming language originally designed for web development. It was originally created by Rasmus Lerdorf in 1994; the PHP reference implementation is now produced by The PHP Group. PHP originally stood for Personal Home Page, but it now stands for the recursive initialism PHP: Hypertext Preprocessor.PHP code may be executed with a command line interface (CLI), embedded into HTML code, or it can be used in combination with various web template systems, web content management systems, and web frameworks. PHP code is usually processed by a PHP interpreter implemented as a module in a web server or as a Common Gateway Interface (CGI) executable. The web server combines the results of the interpreted and executed PHP code, which may be any type of data, including images, with the generated web page. PHP can be used for many programming tasks outside of the web context, such as standalone graphical applications and robotic drone control.
The standard PHP interpreter, powered by the Zend Engine, is free software released under the PHP License. PHP has been widely ported and can be deployed on most web servers on almost every operating system and platform, free of charge.The PHP language evolved without a written formal specification or standard until 2014, with the original implementation acting as the de facto standard which other implementations aimed to follow. Since 2014 work has gone on to create a formal PHP specification.

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Ukash was a UK-based electronic money system that allowed users to exchange their cash for a secure code to make payments online. It was acquired by Skrill Group in April 2014 and merged into Austrian competitor paysafecard, acquired by Skrill a year earlier. All existing vouchers expired after 31 October 2015. Remaining ones can be exchanged into paysafecards.The system allowed users to exchange their cash for a secure code. The code was then used to make payments online, to load cards or e-wallets or for money transfer. Codes were distributed around the world by participating retail locations, kiosks and ATMs.

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Shopee (Traditional Chinese: 蝦皮購物) is an e-commerce platform headquartered in Singapore under Sea Group (previously known as Garena), which was founded in 2009 by Forrest Li. Shopee first launched in Singapore in 2015, and since expanded its reach to Malaysia, Thailand, Taiwan, Indonesia, Vietnam and the Philippines. It serves users in Southeast Asia and Taiwan to buy and sell products online. Due to the mobile and social element built within the concept, Shopee was described as one of the “5 disruptive ecommerce startups we saw in 2015” by Tech In Asia.

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An internationalized domain name (IDN) is an Internet domain name that contains at least one label that is displayed in software applications, in whole or in part, in a language-specific script or alphabet, such as Arabic, Chinese, Cyrillic, Tamil, Hebrew or the Latin alphabet-based characters with diacritics or ligatures, such as French. These writing systems are encoded by computers in multi-byte Unicode. Internationalized domain names are stored in the Domain Name System as ASCII strings using Punycode transcription.
The Domain Name System, which performs a lookup service to translate user-friendly names into network addresses for locating Internet resources, is restricted in practice to the use of ASCII characters, a practical limitation that initially set the standard for acceptable domain names. The internationalization of domain names is a technical solution to translate names written in language-native scripts into an ASCII text representation that is compatible with the Domain Name System. Internationalized domain names can only be used with applications that are specifically designed for such use; they require no changes in the infrastructure of the Internet.
IDN was originally proposed in December 1996 by Martin Dürst and implemented in 1998 by Tan Juay Kwang and Leong Kok Yong under the guidance of Tan Tin Wee. After much debate and many competing proposals, a system called Internationalizing Domain Names in Applications (IDNA) was adopted as a standard, and has been implemented in several top-level domains.
In IDNA, the term internationalized domain name means specifically any domain name consisting only of labels to which the IDNA ToASCII algorithm (see below) can be successfully applied. In March 2008, the IETF formed a new IDN working group to update the current IDNA protocol.
In October 2009, the Internet Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers (ICANN) approved the creation of internationalized country code top-level domains (IDN ccTLDs) in the Internet that use the IDNA standard for native language scripts. In May 2010 the first IDN ccTLD were installed in the DNS root zone.

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An email hosting service is an Internet hosting service that operates email servers.
Email hosting services usually offer premium email as opposed to advertisement-supported free email or free webmail. Email hosting services thus differ from typical end-user email providers such as webmail sites. They cater mostly to demanding email users and small and medium-sized (SME) businesses, while larger enterprises usually run their own email hosting services on their own equipment using software such as Microsoft Exchange Server, IceWarp or Postfix. Hosting providers can manage a user’s own domain name, including any email authentication scheme that the domain owner wishes to enforce in order to convey the meaning that using a specific domain name identifies and qualifies email senders.
Most email hosting providers offer advanced premium email solutions hosted on dedicated custom email platforms. The technology and offerings of different email hosting providers can therefore vary with different needs. Email offered by most webhosting companies is usually more basic standardized POP3-based email and webmail based on open source webmail applications like Horde, RoundCube or SquirrelMail. Almost all web hosting providers offer standard email hosting.

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Yandex.Money (Russian: Яндекс.Деньги) is Russia’s largest electronic payment service according to a 2016 survey by TNS. It is an online payment service that works with two types of clients — individual users and merchants.
The service is the joint venture of Russia’s leading search engine Yandex (NASDAQ: YNDX), and Russia’s largest bank Sberbank. In 2013, Sberbank, one of the largest banks in Eastern Europe, bought a major stake in Yandex.Money. Currently, Sberbank owns a 75% stake in the company, the remaining 25% plus one ruble is owned by Yandex. With new stakeholders, Yandex.Money obtained access to a broad payment infrastructure of Sberbank. Users obtained an opportunity to top up their e-wallets through the chain of Sberbank’s ATMs and terminals, and online banking.
Yandex.Money has a b2b service Yandex.Checkout — a payment aggregator for online stores and other businesses that need payments on their online platforms. Yandex.Checkout was launched by Yandex.Money in 2013. Yandex.Checkout is currently the leading service for accepting online payments in Russia, according to a 2016 survey by MARC. With this payment solution, merchants from all over the world can offer Russian consumers the online payment methods most popular among Russians and CIS-citizens just in one button ‘Pay with Yandex’: bank cards, direct debit (online banking), e-wallets, mobile phones, and cash via mobile retailers and payment kiosks (there are over 250 thousand cash-acceptance points all over CIS).
Currently more than 76,000 online stores across the globe use Yandex.Checkout, including such partners as Skype, AliExpress (Alibaba), JD.com and BlaBlaCar.Yandex.Money also has an e-wallet, which is the original product of the company. Yandex.Money offers consumers easy, safe, and reliable methods of paying online on its own site and mobile app. The service hosts about 30 million user accounts with about 15,000 new accounts opened daily. Recent TNS research showed that Yandex.Money is the most popular e-wallet in Russia: every third user of the Internet in Russia pays by Yandex.Money e-wallet. Using Yandex.Money, gamers also can pay on Nintendo, top up an account on Steam (software), Wargaming, Riot Games, buy codes for Apple (iTunes) and Xbox. Yandex.Money became the official sales operator of the popular game publisher Electronic Arts. Russian users can now buy FIFA 17 for PC and Xbox through the service. Yandex.Money also distributes Blizzard Entertainment virtual cards, which provide users with a convenient payment option for Blizzard’s online games: World of Warcraft, Overwatch (video game), Heroes of the Storm, StarCraft, Hearthstone (video game), and Diablo (series).
Customers can also use Yandex.Money cards as a form of payment: both plastic and virtual MasterCards are available for issuing. In 2015 Yandex.Money received MasterCard Principal Member status. By the 2016 Yandex.Money has issued more than 500,000 plastic cards and 11 million virtual MasterCards. Yandex.Money was among the first to bring its users Apple Pay in Russia, which is transforming mobile payments with an easy, secure and private way to pay in stores, apps and on the web. Customers can pay via Apple Pay by adding their plastic or virtual prepaid Yandex.Money cards to Apple Wallet. Online stores and other merchants, which accept payments via Yandex.Checkout, can also offer consumers fast and convenient contactless payment via Apple Pay. With Touch ID there is no need to manually fill out lengthy payment forms or repeatedly type in billing information.
More than 4 million users have downloaded the Yandex.Money mobile app. 35% of them use an iOS device. Using the app, they can transfer funds via iMessage, pay bills — such as utilities, internet, mobile services — make loan payments, access their most frequent payments, and more. Users can also download the Yandex.Money app on Apple Watch. Yandex.Money mobile application Yandex.Fines for iOS implemented a new feature, which enables paying for traffic fines via Apple Pay.According to a June 2015 public opinion survey, Yandex.Money is widely known in Russia. In a survey conducted by TNS, 92 percent of Russians are familiar with the service, and 44 percent regularly use Yandex.Money to make payments.The company’s headquarters are in Moscow, Russia. It has branch offices in Saint Petersburg and Nizhny Novgorod. Ivan Glazachev is Yandex.Money Chief Executive Officer. He became the head of the company on 1 March 2017.

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Omnichannel is a cross-channel content strategy that organizations use to improve their user experience. Rather than working in parallel, communication channels and their supporting resources are designed and orchestrated to cooperate. Omnichannel implies integration and orchestration of channels such that the experience of engaging across all the channels someone chooses to use is as, or even more, efficient or pleasant than using single channels in isolation.
The approach has applications in any industry, but early examples have been in financial services, healthcare, government, retail, and telecommunications industries. Omnichannel supersedes multichannel and includes channels such as physical locations, ecommerce, mobile applications, and social media. Companies that use omnichannel contend that a customer values the ability to engage with a company through multiple avenues at the same time.A common misconception is that to be omnichannel, a strategy needs to support all possible channels, which is a practical impossibility for most organizations.

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A domain name registry is a database of all domain names and the associated registrant information in the top level domains of the Domain Name System (DNS) of the Internet that enables third party entities to request administrative control of a domain name. Most registries operate on the top-level and second-level of the DNS.
A registry operator, sometimes called a network information center (NIC), maintains all administrative data of the domain and generates a zone file which contains the addresses of the nameservers for each domain. Each registry is an organization that manages the registration of domain names within the domains for which it is responsible, controls the policies of domain name allocation, and technically operates its domain. It may also fulfill the function of a domain name registrar, or may delegate that function to other entities.Domain names are managed under a hierarchy headed by the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA), which manages the top of the DNS tree by administrating the data in the root nameservers. IANA also operates the int registry for intergovernmental organizations, the arpa zone for protocol administration purposes, and other critical zones such as root-servers.net. IANA delegates all other domain name authority to other domain name registries. Country code top-level domains (ccTLD) are delegated by IANA to national registries such as DENIC in Germany and Nominet in the United Kingdom.

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